Political Philosophers

  1. Niccolo Machiavelli Author of The Prince and Discourses on Livy.
  2. Thomas Hobbes Author of De Cive and Leviathan.
  3. John Locke Author of Second Treatise on Government, A Letter Concerning Toleration, and other works, which laid the basis for social contract theory.
  4. John Locke Another portrait
  5. Cornelius van Bynkershoek Author of Questions of Public Law.
  6. Baron Charles de Montesquieu Author of Spirit of Laws.


  1. Scanned original pages of U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights. See also the Emory archive.
  2. Scanned original pages of Declaration of Independence. See also the Emory archive.
  3. 1826 Letter from Jefferson Declining to attend 50th anniversary July 4 celebration, page 1
  4. 1826 Letter from Jefferson Declining to attend 50th anniversary July 4 celebration, page 2


  1. Extra portraits of some of the Founders
    1. Thomas Jefferson
      1. Thomas Jefferson 1805, Rembrandt Peale, New York Historical Society. Color corrected by Jay gladwell. Image before color correction. This and the next three Jefferson pictures available from Monticello Memorial Foundation, P.O. Box 316, Charlottesville, VA 22902.
      2. Thomas Jefferson 1805, Gilbert Stuart, National Portrait Gallery
      3. Thomas Jefferson Jamie Wyeth 1975 Private Collection
      4. Thomas Jefferson Jamie Wyeth 1975 Private Collection (smaller version)
      5. Thomas Jefferson Engraving by Hall from oil by Gilbert
    2. George Washington
      1. George Washington Portrait by Gilbert Stuart, unfinished. Image used on $1 bill.
      2. George Washington Portrait by Gilbert Stuart, unfinished. Head shot of image used on $1 bill.
      3. George Washington Portrait by Gilbert Stuart
      4. George Washington At the signing of the Constitution
    3. James Madison
      1. James Madison
      2. James Madison as President
      3. James Madison at 82 In 1833
      4. James Madison Engraving By Edwin, from oil by Gilbert
    4. Benjamin Franklin
      1. Benjamin Franklin at work
    5. Alexander Hamilton
      1. Alexander Hamilton In 1792
      2. Alexander Hamilton Engraving by Prud'homme from miniature by Gilbert
  2. Monochrome collection. These were contributed by Dr. Alexander Grey of the Itus Group.
    1. James Madison
    2. Thomas Jefferson
    3. George Washington
    4. Nicholas Gilman
    5. John Langdon
    6. Nathaniel Gorham
    7. Rufus King
    8. William Samual Johnson
    9. Roger Sherman
    10. Alexander Hamilton
    11. William Livingston
    12. David Brearley
    13. William Paterson
    14. Jonathan Dayton
    15. Benjamin Franklin
    16. Thomas Mifflin
    17. Robert Morris
    18. George Clymer
    19. Jared Ingersoll
    20. James Wilson
    21. Gouverneur Morris
    22. George Read
    23. Gunning Bedford, Jr.
    24. Richard Bassett
    25. John Dickinson
    26. James McHenry
    27. Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer
    28. Daniel Carroll
    29. John Blair
    30. James Madison
    31. William Blount
    32. Richard Dobbs Spaight
    33. Hugh Williamson
    34. John Rutledge
    35. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
    36. Charles Pinckney
    37. Pierce Butler
    38. Abraham Baldwin
    39. William Few
    40. Thomas Fitzsimmons
    41. Jacob Broom
    42. John Jay
    43. George Mason
  3. Founders who were not delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention, from publications of the U.S. National Park Service
    1. Thomas Jefferson While Minister to France
    2. John Adams While Minister to Britain
    3. John Jay
    4. Patrick Henry
    5. Richard Henry Lee
    6. Samuel Chase
  4. Founders who were delegates but left before Convention finished, from publications of the U.S. National Park Service
    1. William R. Davie North Carolina
    2. Oliver Ellsworth Connecticut
    3. William C. Houston New Jersey (no portrait available)
    4. William Houstoun Georgia (no portrait available)
    5. John Lansing New York
    6. James McClurg Virginia
    7. John F. Mercer Maryland
    8. William Pierce Georgia (no portrait available)
    9. Caleb Strong Massachusetts
    10. George Wythe Virginia (no portrait available)
    11. Robert Yates New York (no portrait available)
  5. Founders who were delegates and refused to sign the proposed Constitution, from publications of the U.S. National Park Service
    1. Elbridge Gerry Massachusetts
    2. Luther Martin Maryland
    3. George Mason Virginia
    4. Edmund J. Randolph Virginia
  6. Founders who were delegates and signed the Constitution, from publications of the U.S. National Park Service
    1. Abraham Baldwin Georgia
    2. Richard Bassett Delaware
    3. Gunning Bedford Jr Delaware
    4. John Blair Virginia
    5. William Blount North Carolina
    6. David Brearly New Jersey
    7. Jacob Broom Delaware
    8. Pierce Butler South Carolina
    9. Daniel Carroll Maryland
    10. George Clymer Pennsylvania
    11. Jonathan Dayton New Jersey
    12. John Dickinson Delaware
    13. William Few Georgia
    14. Thomas Fitzsimons Pennsylvania
    15. Benjamin Franklin Pennsylvania
    16. Nicholas Gilman New Hampshire
    17. Nathaniel Gorham Massachusetts
    18. Alexander Hamilton New York
    19. Jared Ingersoll Pennsylvania
    20. Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer Maryland
    21. William Samuel Johnson Connecticut
    22. Rufus King Massachusetts
    23. John Langdon New Hampshire
    24. William Livingston New Jersey
    25. James McHenry Maryland
    26. James Madison Virginia
    27. Thomas Mifflin Pennsylvania
    28. Gouverneur Morris Pennsylvania
    29. Robert Morris Pennsylvania
      1. Robert Morris
      2. Robert Morris
      3. Robert Morris
    30. William Paterson New Jersey
    31. Charles Pinckney South Carolina
    32. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney South Carolina
    33. George Read Delaware
    34. John Rutledge South Carolina
    35. Roger Sherman Connecticut
    36. Richard Dobbs Spaight North Carolina
    37. George Washington Virginia
    38. Hugh Williamson North Carolina
    39. James Wilson Pennsylvania
  7. William Jackson Not a delegate, but the convention secretary

U.S. Supreme Court Justices

These were contributed by Dr. Alexander Grey of the Itus Group

Chief Justices

  1. 1789-1795 John Jay
  2. 1795-1795 John Rutledge
  3. 1796-1800 Oliver Ellsworth
  4. 1801-1835 John Marshall
  5. 1836-1864 Roger Brooke Taney
  6. 1864-1873 Salmon Portland Chase
  7. 1874-1888 Morrison Remick Waite
  8. 1888-1910 Melville Weston Fuller
  9. 1910-1921 Edward Douglas White
  10. 1921-1930 William Howard Taft
  11. 1930-1942 Charles Evans Hughes

Portraits of John Marshall

  1. 1797
  2. 1808
  3. 1824 By Peticolas
  4. 1825 By Jarvis
  5. 1831 By Inman

U.S. Presidents

These were especially influential in the development and interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. These images were contributed by Dr. Alexander Grey of the Itus Group

  1. George Washington
  2. Thomas Jefferson
  3. James Madison
  4. Andrew Jackson
  5. Abraham Lincoln
  6. Theodore Roosevelt
  7. Thomas Woodrow Wilson
  8. Franklin Roosevelt


  1. Paul Revere's Ride, by Hy Hintermeister.
  2. Committee to Draft Declaration of Independence
  3. Drafting the Declaration of Independence, by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris, 1900.
  4. Signing of the Declaration of Independence, by John Trumbull, 1819.
  5. Washington presiding over the Constitutional Convention, by Howard Chandler Christy, 1940.
  6. Constitutional Debate
  7. The Signing of the Constitution of the United States
  8. The Signing of the Constitution of the United States
  9. Signing the Constitution
  10. Washington presiding at the Signing
  11. Adoption of the Constitution JB Stearns
  12. Report of meeting with Sconstayah of the Cherokees Business conducted during Convention
  13. Washington's 1789 inauguration


  1. Thomas Jefferson's Monticello
  2. Philadelphia Dock Near Arch Street ferry, during depressed days of the Confederation
  3. City Tavern, Philadelphia About 1800, where many of the Convention delegates stayed
  4. Federal Hall, New York About 1797, watercolor by Robertson
  5. Federal Hall, New York
  6. Robert Morris' townhouse in Philadelphia On High Street, now Market Street. Washington stayed there during the Convention.
  7. Washington City
  8. Maryland State House Site of 1786 Annapolis Convention


  1. Don't Tread on Me Militia patch
  2. Bunker Hill Militia patch
  3. Concord/Plowman Militia patch (large)
  4. Concord/Plowman Militia patch (small)

Relevant Court Cases

  1. The Bridgeman Art Library, Ltd. v. Corel Corporation, 97 Civ. 6232 (LAK) Ruling that photographic or digital images of public domain art works are not copyrightable
It is easier to get forgiveness than permission.
Navy Admiral Grace Hopper, principal author of the COBOL computer language, noted for her initiative and colorful language.
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Maintained: Constitution Research